Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.102, No.1, 105-115, 2018
Intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using cationic polymer can prevent acute influenza A viral infection in vivo lung
We studied the contribution of Duox2 in mucosal host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection in in vivo lung. We found that Duox2 was required for the induction of type I and III interferon (IFN)s and transient Duox2 overexpression using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) leads to suppression of IAV infection in in vivo lung. Twenty mice (C57BL/6J) were anesthetized and challenged by intranasal administration of 213 pfu/30 mu l of IAV (WS/33/H1N1), and IAV-infected mice were euthanized at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days post infection (dpi). Duox2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and pCMV-Duox2 formulated with PEI were inoculated to mice to assess the regulatory mechanism between Duox2 and IFN secretion. Following intranasal IAV inoculation, viral infection was significantly aggravated from 3 dpi in in vivo lung and viral titer was highest at 7 dpi. Consistent with this, Duox2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were significantly induced from 3 dpi in the lung tissue of IAV-infected mice. Viral titer was much higher in IAV-infected mice that were inoculated with Duox2 shRNA accompanied with lower survival rate and extensive lung pathologies. Interestingly, severe lung pathologies in IAV-infected mice were not observed and viral titer was significantly reduced in mice with pulmonary administration of pCMV-Duox2 formulated with PEI before IAV inoculation. Both mRNA and secreted protein levels of IFN-beta and IFN-lambda(2/3) were highly elevated in IAV-infected mice with pCMV-Duox2 formulated with PEI. Duox2 is necessary for the regulation of IFN secretion in in vivo lung, and pulmonary administration of Duox2 DNA using cationic polymer triggers the induction of type I and III IFNs resulting in more complete suppression of IAV infection.