Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.490, No.4, 1326-1333, 2017
Thioredoxin attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by reducing NADPH oxidase activity
Oxidative stress is recognized as one of the most important contributing factors to the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, trigger endothelial dysfunction and initiate the progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is one of the key regulators of intracellular redox, which is pivotal in atherogenesis. However, the regulation mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trxl on NADPH oxidase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whose ROS level is mainly produced by NADPH oxidase, especially Nox4 isoform. Our data demonstrated that Trx decreased NADPH oxidase activity, ROS production and ICAM-1 expression in ox-LDL treated HUVECs. Genetic gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies showed that Trxl suppressed ox-LDLinduced Nox4 and p22phox expression. A co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Trxl decreased Nox4-p22phox complex level during ox-LDL stimulation. Transient transfection of Nox4 and p22phox significantly increased intracellular ROS generation, which could be blocked by Trx overexpression. In addition, Trx overexpression also prevented ox-LDL-induced Nox2 and Racl protein levels. These results suggest that Trx suppresses NADPH oxidase activity in vascular endothelia under pathological conditions and may prevent the initiation of atherosclerosis by attenuating exceeding ROS production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.