Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.491, No.2, 493-499, 2017
Hippo effector YAP directly regulates the expression of PD-L1 transcripts in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcilloma
Developments of EGFR-TKI and immunotherapy targeting the PD1/13D-L1 pathway are considered most important medical breakthroughs in lung cancer treatment. Nowadays, 3rd generation EGFR TKI is widely used for T790M positive 1st and 2nd EGFR-TKI resistant lung cancer patients. Immunotherapy is powerful option for lung cancer patients without drug targets and chemotherapy resistant patients. It also has changed the concept of conventional anti-cancer therapy in the point of regulating tumor microenvironment. There are many studies linking these two important pathways. Recent studies demonstrated that PD-L1 expression is significantly correlated to the mutation status of EGFR, and activation of EGFR signaling can also induce the expression of PD-L1. However, the real linker between PD-Li and EGFR signaling remains to be revealed. Our previous study revealed that the Hippo pathway effector YAP confers EGFR-TKI resistance in lung adenocarcinoma, and inhibition of YAP restores sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Thus, we examined whether PD-L1 is relevant, in terms of conferring EGFR-TKI resistance and whether YAP directly regulates the expression of PD-L1 in this context. First, we compared the expression levels of PD-L1 and YAP between EGFR-TKI-resistant PC9 cells and the parental PC9 adenocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of both YAP and PD-L1 were markedly higher in the EGFR-TKI-resistant cells compared to the parental cells, suggesting differential expression pattern between two cell types. YAP knockdown significantly decreased the expression of PD-L1 in the EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, while YAP overexpression increased the expression of PD-Li in the parental PC9 cells. Then, our results revealed that YAP regulates the transcription of PD-L1, and the YAP/TEAD complex binds to the PD-L1 promoter. Surprisingly, knockdown of PDv was sufficient to decrease cell proliferation and wound healing in the EGFR-TKI-resistant PC9 cells. These data suggest a PD1-independent oncogenic function of PD-L1. The Hippo effector YAP plays a crucial role in linking the PD-L1 and EGFR-TKI resistance by directly regulating the expression of PD-L1 in lung cancer. Targeting PD-L1 directly or via YAP could provide an effective therapeutic strategy for EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.