Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.335, 10-17, 2017
Direct and indirect electrochemical reduction prior to a biological treatment for dimetridazole removal
Two different electrochemical reduction processes for the removal of dimetridazole, a nitroimidazolebased antibiotic, were examined in this-work. A direct electrochemical reduction was first carried out in a home-made flow cell in acidic medium at potentials chosen to minimize the formation of amino derivatives and then the formation of azo dimer. Analysis of the electrolyzed solution showed a total degradation of dimetridazole and the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.13 to 0.24. An indirect electrochemical reduction in the presence of titanocene dichloride ((C5H5)(2)TiCl2), which is used to reduce selectively nitro compounds, was then investigated to favour the formation of amino compounds over hydroxylamines and then to prevent the formation of azo and azoxy dimers. UPLC-MS/MS analyses showed a higher selectivity towards the formation of the amino compound for indirect electrolyses performed at pH 2. To confirm the effectiveness of the electrochemical reduction, a biological treatment involving activated sludge was then carried out after direct and indirect electrolyses at different pH. The enhancement of the biodegradability was clearly shown since mineralization yields of all electrolyzed solutions increased significantly. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.