International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.42, No.15, 9611-9618, 2017
Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis using Ni-loaded chicken dropping catalysts
The Ni-loaded chicken droppings (Ni/CD) and chicken dropping ash (Ni/CDA) were prepared by the impregnation method and applied as catalysts for biomass tar decomposition at low temperature (450 degrees C) under N-2 and steam/N-2 conditions. The prepared samples and the supports were characterized by N-2 adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction, H-2 temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results reveal that Ni/CD and Ni/CDA showed higher catalytic activity for tar decomposition, in terms of producing hydrogen-rich gas, relative to commercial Ni/Al2O3 under N-2 conditions. This higher activity was caused by lower interactions of Ni with the support and the presence of additional reduced Ni. In the case of steam reforming, Ni/CDA also showed higher hydrogen yield and a lower amount of carbon deposition than Ni/Al2O3. This result indicates that a hydrophilic hydroxyapatite in the CDA support promoted the water gas shift reaction to suppress carbon deposition and increase hydrogen yield. (C) 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.