Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.318, 103-111, 2017
A new supported TiO2 film deposited on stainless steel for the photocatalytic degradation of contaminants of emerging concern
A new supported catalyst composed of a nanostructured TiO2 film deposited on a stainless steel mesh (nanoTiO(2)-SS) using the Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) technique was evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of contaminants of emerging concern. Results showed that under the oxidative conditions tested, the nanoTiO(2)-SS catalyst demonstrated an efficiency in degrading the target contaminants higher than that observed under direct photolysis and photocatalysis using the conventional TiO2 Degussa P25 catalyst at the same amount of TiO2 participating to the photo catalysis. Specifically, the rate of removal of warfarin and trimethoprim obtained with the new catalyst was found twice the one observed by using TiO2 Degussa P25 and approximately 1.6 times faster for metoprolol, carbamazepine and gemfibrozil. An evaluation of the electrical energy per order magnitude of removal (EE/O) confirmed the enhanced performance of the new catalyst (24.3-31.8 kWh m(-3) rather than 32.8-39.3 kWh m(-3) for conventional TiO2 and that the performance is compound-dependent. Toxicity testing revealed that some assays are suitable for the investigation of bioactivity of treated waters containing contaminants of emerging concern at mu g L-1 level. Specifically, the AMES Fluctuation Test, Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test and Green alga Selenastrum capricornutum test provided valuable results for an environmental impact assessment. On the other hand, the Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri acute toxicity tests were not sensitive enough to detect bioactivity in the samples analysed without prior pre-concentration. C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.