Biomacromolecules, Vol.18, No.4, 1172-1179, 2017
Oral Gavage Delivery of PR8 Antigen with beta-Glucan-Conjugated GRGDS Carrier to Enhance M-Cell Targeting Ability and Induce Immunity
Oral gavage is known as one of most convenient routes for therapeutic administration in comparison with other available routes such as intravenous, intra muscular, suppository, etc. An oral vaccine delivery system has additional potential as it may provide a convenient way to prevent infectious diseases by introducing optimum immunization in mucus. Although oral vaccine delivery has attracted tremendous interest in vaccine delivery research, various limitations have prevented its rate of progress up to the level that was initially expected. However, the major problems of oral vaccine delivery are vaccine instability and lack of absorbability, resulting from degradation of the sophisticated antigens in the acidic medium in the stomach. In order to obtain adequate microfold-cell (M-cell) targeting and uptake, the therapeutic material is required to pass through the stomach and reach the small intestine without degradation. In this project, we have introduced a conjugate of beta-glucan and Glycine-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serine (GRGDS) that is effective for simultaneous protection of the antigen (PR8) and M-cell targeting. According to the experimental results, the cationic beta-glucan-GRGDS conjugate can encapsulate a certain amount of anionic PR8 through electrostatic interaction, which forms nanoparticles with a range of diameter of 200-250 mn. Also, the PR8 incorporated nanoparticles showed high cell viability and stability in diverse environments. Finally, excellent M-cell targeting ability was verified in an in vitro M-cell model. Most importantly, the in vivo test obviously demonstrated the superiority of this system, which significantly increases antibody concentration in serum, intestine, and mucus as measured 21 days after immunization.