Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.489, No.4, 426-431, 2017
AG1296 enhances plaque stability via inhibiting inflammatory responses and decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in ApoE-/- mice
Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic process that progresses to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, thrombosis and stroke. AG1296 is a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is able to block PDGF-PDGFR signaling pathway. This study aims to assess the effect of AG1296 on plaque stability and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: Atherosclerotic plaques were induced in carotid arteries in ApoE -/- mice by perivascular collar placement. All mice were randomly divided into PBS and AG1296 groups. 3 weeks after the surgery, the carotid arteries were harvested for histological analysis. Results: In AG1296 group, plaque area decreased by 41.5% (p = 0.0041) and the contents of macrophages and lipids decreased by 43.5% (p = 0.0003) and 35.6% (p = 0.0032) respectively. The contents of smooth muscle cells increased by 22.3% (p = 0.0214) in AG1296 group. Vulnerable index decreased by 483% (p = 0.0002). The inflammation factors IL-6 and TNF- alpha decreased by 49.0% (p = 0.0008) and 51.8% (p < 0.0001) and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased by 54.1% (p = 0.0004) and 37.1% (p < 0.0001) in AG1296 group. M1 macrophage markers (MCP-1) were downregulated by 30.3% (p = 0.0007) and M2 macrophage markers (ARG-1) were increased by 55.2% (p = 0.0009) in AG1296 group. Conclusion: AG1296 inhibited the atherosclerotic plaque progression and enhanced plaque stability by inhibiting inflammatory responses, reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and promoting macrophages from proinflammatory phenotype to anti-inflammatory phenotype. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.