Nature Materials, Vol.16, No.4, 474-474, 2017
Solution-based electrical doping of semiconducting polymer films over a limited depth
Solution-based electrical doping protocols may allow more versatility in the design of organic electronic devices; yet, controlling the diffusion of dopants in organic semiconductors and their stability has proven challenging. Here we present a solution-based approach for electrical p-doping of films of donor conjugated organic semiconductors and their blends with acceptors over a limited depth with a decay constant of 10-20nm by post-process immersion into a polyoxometalate solution (phosphomolybdic acid, PMA) in nitromethane. PMA-doped films show increased electrical conductivity and work function, reduced solubility in the processing solvent, and improved photo-oxidative stability in air. This approach is applicable to a variety of organic semiconductors used in photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. PMA doping over a limited depth of bulk heterojunction polymeric films, in which amine-containing polymers were mixed in the solution used for film formation, enables single-layer organic photovoltaic devices, processed at room temperature, with power conversion efficiencies up to 5.9 +/- 0.2% and stable performance on shelf-lifetime studies at 60 degrees C for at least 280 h.