Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.138, 627-637, 2017
Low cost guinea fowl bone derived recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for microwave assisted transesterification of Annona squamosa L. seed oil
Guinea fowl bone derived heterogeneous catalyst was utilized for biodiesel production for the first time on microwave heating system from Annona squamosa (custard apple seed) oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS, BET surface area and basicity. Optimization for various reaction conditions on FAME conversion was explored. Maximum conversion of 95.82 +/- 0.2% FAME was attained at 1:18 M ratio of oil: methanol, 4 wt% of catalyst at 800 W microwave power and 65 degrees C reaction temperatures for 20 min. Custard apple seed oil was studied by GCMS, whereas synthesized FAME was analysed by H-1 FTNMR spectroscopy. Catalyst was reused up to five times with maximum conversion of >80%. Physicochemical properties of synthesized FAME Were studied as per ASTM standards. Results displayed that catalyst derived from guinea fowl bone showed better reusability and has enormous potential to be used for biodiesel production under microwave irradiated transesterification of Annona squamosa L (custard apple seed) oil within a short reaction time. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.