Energy, Vol.120, 642-651, 2017
Demand management to mitigate impacts of plug-in electric vehicle fast charge in buildings with renewables
Plug-in electric vehicle penetration is increasing due to technical advancements and environmental concerns. Along with residential plug-in electric vehicle charging, the public charging infrastructure is much needed to reduce plug-in electric vehicles' range anxiety and foster their adoption. Renewable energy and demand management programs are considered viable options that can reduce the impacts of widespread plug-in electric vehicle penetration on the electric grid. This research studies the impacts of plug-in electric vehicle direct current fast charging on a simulated standalone retail building's peak demand and energy consumption, and presents the ability of renewable energy and demand management options to reduce their impacts. Additionally, insights into a public charge station usage are presented by monitoring different types of plug-in electric vehicle charge behaviors at a retail site. Research findings indicate that demand management of building end-use loads along with the use of solar photovoltaic can contribute to absorbing plug-in electric vehicle penetration at the building level ranging from the average of 7% for the demand management option alone to an average of 38% for the combination of demand management and solar photovoltaic, and contributing to shifting building peak demand to late evening hours. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.