Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.482, No.4, 980-986, 2017
Injury-stimulated Sonic hedgehog expression in microglia contributes to neuroinflammatory response in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region are selectively destroyed. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been well known to play a key role in a variety of processes such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation and protection, and tissue repair during inflammation. However, the evidences for the innate role of Shh in adult brain injury are presently lacking and studies have been needed to unveil the importance of Shh in the process of neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated the role of Shh in the pathologic progress of Parkinson's disease in MPTP-induced animal model system. Interestingly, we observed that Shh expression was gradually increased in MPTP affected SNpc region. Activated microglia exclusively expressed SHH in vivo and we could recapitulate Shh induction in activated cultured primary microglia cells. Using the SHH responsive CreloxP binary genetic reporter transgenic mouse system, we also found that most of the cell types except for oligodendrocyte in the SNpc region reacted to the SHH by MPTP injection. Taken together, activated microglia induced Shh expression and most neural cells except oligodendrocyte responded to microgliaderived SHH in MPTP-treated SN. These results suggest that SHH in activated microglia by MPTPinjection might be involved in the innate processes of recovery from neurotoxin induced injury in the PD animal model system. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.