Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.483, No.3, 958-963, 2017
Novel calcium recognition constructions in proteins: Calcium blade and EF-hand zone
Metal ions can regulate various cell processes being first, second or third messengers, and some of them, especially transition metal ions, take part in catalysis in many enzymes. As an intracellular ion, Ca2+ is involved in many cellular functions from fertilization and contraction, cell differentiation and proliferation, to apoptosis and cancer. Here, we have identified and described two novel calcium recognition environments in proteins: the calcium blade zone and the EF-hand zone, common to 12 and 8 different protein families, respectively. Each of the two environments contains three distinct structural elements: (a) the well-known characteristic Dx[DN]xDG motif; (b) an adjacent structurally identical segment, which binds metal ion in the same way between the calcium blade zone and the EF-hand zone; and (c) the following structurally variable segment, which distinguishes the calcium blade zone from the EF-hand zone. Both zones have sequence insertions between the last residue of the zone and calcium binding residues in positions V or VI. The long insertion often connects the active and the calcium binding sites in proteins. Using the structurally identical segments as an anchor, we were able to construct the classical calmodulin type EF-hand calcium-binding site out of two different calcium binding motifs from two unrelated proteins. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.