Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.323, 250-263, 2017
Identification and characterization of photodegradation products of metoprolol in the presence of natural fulvic acid by HPLC-UV-MSn
Metoprolol is a beta-blocker highly prescribed for the treatment of heart diseases. It is not efficiently removed in wastewater treatment plants and it has been detected not only in the treated effluents, but also in natural waters. Thus, the knowledge of its fate in the environment is an important issue, and photodegradation is an important degradation pathway. While direct photodegradation of metoprolol by solar light is not relevant, there is evidence in the literature that it suffers indirect photodegradation and a few studies have been published showing the important role of dissolved humic matter as photo sensitizer. However, the identification of the photoproducts formed in the presence of humic matter is very poor, since only 2 photoproducts had been identified. This study investigated the degradation of metoprolol under simulated solar radiation and in the presence of fulvic acids (FA) extracted from a river. During the photodegradation experiments we observed the formation of new compounds which were separated and tentatively identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MSn. At least 16 compounds were tentatively identified,including the 2 compounds previously identified in the literature and 4 new compounds which had not been detected by other authors as degradation products of metoprolol, even when submitted to artificial degradation processes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.