Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.482, No.2, 359-365, 2017
Palmitate induces RIP1/RIP3-dependent necrosis via MLKL-mediated pore formation in the plasma membrane of RAW 264.7 cells
We previously reported that palmitate induces receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1-dependent necrosis in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In response to death receptor stimuli, RIP1 is reported to activate RIP3, which causes the phosphorylation and translocation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein to the plasma membrane, subsequent pore formation in the plasma membrane, and necrotic cell death. In the current study, we investigated the role of MLKL in palmitate-induced, RIP1/RIP3-dependent necrotic cell death in RAW 264.7 cells. The down-regulation of RIP1 or RIP3 by siRNA transfection protected the cells from palmitate-induced cell death. In addition, MLKL was phosphorylated at the serine residue and translocated to the plasma membrane in palmitate-treated cells. In these cells, MLKL was observed as aggregate dots on the plasma membrane. The findings also show that palmitate induced the formation of pores with varied shapes and sizes, and an increase in propidium iodide (PI) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Furthermore, the down-regulation of MLKL by siRNA transfection significantly decreased palmitate-induced PI uptake and LDH release, resulting in protection against palmitate-induced necrotic cell death. The findings reported here indicate that palmitate induces RIP1/RIP3-dependent necrosis via MLKL-mediated pore formation of RAW 264.7 cells in the plasma membrane, which could provide a new mechanism to explain the link between elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitate in particular, and macrophage death. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.