Applied Energy, Vol.187, 899-909, 2017
Efficient start-up energy management via nonlinear control for eco-traction systems
Electrochemical capacitors, called supercapacitors (SCs) or ultracapacitors, are devices conveniently used for embedded electrical energy management owing to their huge capacitance, low internal resistance and flexible control through power electronic conversion. This paper proposes a main power supply of hybrid Wind Generator (WG)-SC within the train station for feeding the traction onboard SC through specified limited feeding transit durations. Onboard SCs provide the train with the requested start-up self-energy. The hybrid WG-SCs system is an environmental-friendly source that enables the independency on national grid and guarantees an efficient bidirectional power transfer for energy management with enhanced dynamic performance. Therefore, the dynamic modelling and the experimental analysis of the modern hybrid WG-SCs used for managing the charge/discharge operation of SCs at Unity Power Factor (UPF) mode are presented. For this purpose, the Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) methodology is deduced and explicitly presented. Simulation results, via MATLAB (TM), reveal that the proposed PCH control methodology can be successfully implemented to ensure acceptable system dynamic behavior. Numerical results are validated with experimental measurements to investigate the significance of the PCH approach for the energy management operation in eco-tractions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.