Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol.103, 541-548, 2016
Membrane hybrid system combined with a trickling filter and a thin layer of biosand to reduce high levels of organic matter in drinking water in developing countries
The present study develops membrane hybrid system for drinking water that combines a trickling filter (TF) and a thin-layer biosand filter (TBSF) prior to membrane. Two different types of trickling filter (submerged and protruding) were placed before the biosand filter (B SF) with two different sand depths (40 and 3 cm). The effectiveness of the TBSF was measured in terms of the reduction in levels of total organic carbon, turbidity, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage MS2. The hybrid systems with a TF + BSF + MF membrane showed higher TOC removal and turbidity reduction than hybrid systems only with BSF + MF membrane. The TOC removal and turbidity reduction by the hybrid systems with a TF were much more stable than those of hybrid systems without a TF throughout the operating period despite the changing level of the TOC. The removal of E. coli by hybrid systems with a TF was greater (usually >99.99%) and more stable than that by the hybrid systems without a TF. However, the removal of bacteriophage MS2 by the hybrid systems with a TF was only moderate (similar to 99%) and not greatly different from that by the hybrid systems without a TF. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Institution of Chemical Engineers.