Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.320, 18-26, 2016
Experimental investigation of spontaneous ignition and flame propagation at pressurized hydrogen release through tubes with varying cross-section
An experimental investigation of spontaneous ignition and flame propagation at high-pressure hydrogen release via cylindrical tubes with varying cross-section is presented. Tubes with different transverse cross-sections are considered in the experiments: (1) local contraction, (2) local enlargement, (3) abrupt contraction, and (4) abrupt enlargement. The tesults show that the presence of the varying cross-section geometries can significantly promote the occurrence of spontaneous ignition. Compared to the tube with constant cross-section, the minimum pressure release needed for spontaneous ignition for the varying cross-sections tubes is considerably lower. Moreover, the initial ignition location is closer to the disk in the presence of varying cross-section geometries in comparison with straight channel. As the flame emerges from the outlet of the tube, the velocity of the flame front in the vicinity of the nozzle increases sharply. Then, a deflagration develops across" the mixing zone of hydrogen/air mixture. The maximum deflagration overpressure increases linearly with the release pressure. Subsequently, a hydrogen jet flame is produced and evolves different shapes at different release stages. A fireball is formed after the jet flame spouts in the open air. Later, the fireball develops into a jet flame which shifts upward and continues to burn in the vertical direction. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.