International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.99, 159-169, 2016
Measurement of the condensation rate of vapor bubbles rising upward in subcooled water by using two ultrasonic frequencies
The condensation rate of vapor bubbles, defined by v(c) = -dR/dt where R is the spherical-equivalent bubble radius, t is time, is an important parameter to determine the interfacial-condensation heat and mass transfer in subcooled boiling. Previous measurements of the condensation rate were mainly based on the optical visualization. In the paper, the development of a new method that uses two ultrasonic frequencies for the measurement of the condensation rate in subcooled boiling is presented. The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method is used for the velocity measurement. Two simultaneous UVP measurements by the two frequencies are exploited. The principle of the new condensation-rate-measurement method is established. In the method, the UVP data of the bubble surface velocity are used. In subcooled boiling, the bubble-surface velocity is affected by the condensation. The UVP measurement must capture correctly the condensation effect on the bubble-surface velocity. In order to confirm the applicability of the UVP method to the measurement of the surface velocity in this case, the growth rate of air bubbles from a nozzle submerged in water is measured and compared with the result of optical visualization and digital image processing. Such growth process is analogous to that of vapor bubbles in a boiling process, and it is the inverse of the condensation process. Evaluation of the new condensation-rate-measurement method is carried out by the measurements of adiabatic air-water-bubbly column and subcooled pool boiling in vertical round tube. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.