Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.126, 32-41, 2016
Optimal biodiesel-additive synthesis under infrared excitation using pork bone supported-Sb catalyst: Engine performance and emission analyses
Glycerol (G) acetic acid (AA) esterification was conducted in an infrared irradiation (IRI) aided batch reactor for maximization of diacetin and triacetin yield (DT) using pork bone derived hydroxyapatite supported antimony (Sb) oxide catalyst. The catalyst possessed appreciable 40 m(2)/g specific surface area; 4.5 nm modal pore diameter and 0.0485 cc/g pore volume with prominent Sb2O5 crystalline phase. Under derived optimal condition, 40% Sb precursor loading, 100 degrees C reaction temperature and 6:1 AA:G mole ratio resulted maximum DT yield (88 1%). Notably, to achieve maximum DT yield (88 1%), conventionally heated batch reactor consumed 6 times more energy (reaction time 6 h at 300 lis energy input rate) in comparison with IRI reactor (reaction time 2 h at 150 J/s energy input rate), indicating remarkable energy-efficiency of IRI. Additionally, synthesized product as additive to palm biodiesel evinced emission reduction by 50% and 20% for CO and HC respectively with 2 degrees-depression in pour point. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Glycerol esterification;Biodiesel-additive;Infrared irradiation;Energy-efficient;Pork bone supported Sb catalyst;Engine performance and exhaust quality