Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.318, 477-486, 2016
Multilevel ecotoxicity assessment of environmentally relevant bisphenol A concentrations using the soil invertebrate Eisenia fetida
Bisphenol A (BPA) presents a serious threat to soil ecosystems, yet its effects on soil-inhabiting organisms are mostly unexplored. Therefore, the impact of environmentally relevant BPA concentrations on a terrestrial model organism, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, was assessed. Animals were cutaneously exposed to 100 nM and 10 mu M BPA up to 10 days (10-d). Next, a battery of biomarkers was used for ecotoxicological evaluation on a cellular, tissue and behavioural level. HPLC analysis showed that after a 10-d exposure, BPA accumulation reached a maximum of 2.50 mu g BPA per g of wet tissue weight. On the cellular level, up to 3-d BPA exposure caused increased lipid oxidation indicating oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment of cell wall and ovaries after 7- and 10-d BPA exposure showed multiple abnormalities, i.e. hyperplasia of epidermis, increased body wall thickness and ovarian atrophy. Detection of these changes was facilitated by a newly proposed semi-quantitative scoring system. Finally, behavioural changes were detected after only 3 days of exposure to 100 nM BPA. Altogether, the presented multilevel toxicity evaluation indicates high sensitivity of earthworms to low BPA doses. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.