Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.473, No.1, 107-113, 2016
Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice
Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARy agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (CPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARy-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of CPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-1-) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/m1 under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.