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Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.472, No.3, 401-409, 2016
Current perspectives of molecular pathways involved in chronic inflammation-mediated breast cancer
Inflammation has multifaceted role in cancer progression including initiation, promotion and invasion by affecting the immune surveillance and associated signaling pathways. Inflammation facilitates the over expression of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors involved in progression of different cancers including breast cancer progression. Deregulation of biological processes such as oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and autophagy elicit favorable immune response towards chronic inflammation. Apart from the role in carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation also favors the emergence of drug resistance clones by inducing the growth of breast cancer stem-like cells. Immunomodulation mediated by cytokines, chemokines and several other growth factors present in the tumor microenvironment regulate chronic inflammatory response and alter crosstalk among various signaling pathways such as NF-kappa B, Nrf-2, JAK-STAT, Akt and MAPKs involved in the progression of breast cancer. In this review, we focused on cellular and molecular processes involved in chronic inflammation, crosstalk among different signaling pathways and their association in breast cancer pathogenesis. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.