International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol.16, No.1, 1677-1690, 2015
The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis
Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 mu M. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds.