International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol.13, No.11, 13830-13866, 2012
Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade
Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), Akt (protein kinase B), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system.