Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.459, No.2, 220-226, 2015
Zinc preconditioning protects against neuronal apoptosis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated induction of heat shock protein 70
ERK During brain ischemic preconditioning (PC), mild bursts of ischemia render neurons resistant to subsequent strong ischemic injuries. Previously, we reported that zinc plays a key role in PC-induced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Zinc-triggered p75(NTR) induction transiently activates caspase-3, which cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Subsequently, the PARP-1 over-activation-induced depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after exposures to lethal doses of zinc or N-methyl-D-aspartate is significantly attenuated in cortical neuronal cultures. In the present study, zinc-mediated preconditioning (Zn PC) reduced apoptotic neuronal death that was caused by N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), etoposide, or staurosporine in mouse cortical cells. We focused on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) because NAD(+)/ATP depletion does not directly cause apoptosis, and HSP70 can inhibit the activation of caspase-9 or caspase-3 by preventing apoptosome formation or cytochrome C release. Zn PC-mediated HSP70 induction was required for neuroprotection against neuronal apoptosis, and geldanamycin-induced HSP70 induction sufficiently blocked neuronal apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, Zn PC-mediated HSP70 induction was blocked by chemical inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, but not c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase. Similarly, neuroprotection by Zn PC against TPEN-induced apoptosis was almost completely reversed by the blockade of ERK or p38 MAPK signaling. Our findings suggest that the ERK- or p38 MAPK-mediated induction of HSP70 plays a key role in inhibiting caspase-3 activation during Zn PC. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.