Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.470, No.4, 894-899, 2016
Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor
Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM(1) receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM(1) receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM(1) receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [I-125]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449-453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM(1) receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.