Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.469, No.4, 848-855, 2016
Identification of novel membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) inhibitors with anti-influenza activities in vitro
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major public health concern that leads to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite various vaccination programs and development of drugs targeting essential viral proteins, the emergence of drug-resistant variants has been frequently reported and the therapeutic options are limited. Because exaggerated inflammation is considered as an important factor in disease pathogenesis, immunomodulatory agents that effectively suppress cytokine responses are needed for the treatment of IAV infection. Membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) that is the best-characterized immune modulatory lipid in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. In the present study, we tested the anti influenza activities of mPGES-1 inhibitors, using a phenotype-based assay involving image analyses. Seven primary hits among 49 compounds targeting mPGES-1 exhibited anti-influenza activities against A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective hit, MPO-0047, suppressed influenza-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We also showed that mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-8, CCL5/RANTES, and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly reduced by the treatment of influenza-infected cells with MPO-0047. Exogenous PGE(2) reversed the inhibitory effects of MPO-0047. Our results showed that this selective mPGES-1 inhibitor has anti-influenza effects by inhibiting PGE(2) production, which suppresses the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. Taken together our data revealed that mPGES-1 inhibitor has the potential for further development as an influenza therapeutic agent. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.