Process Biochemistry, Vol.47, No.12, 1883-1888, 2012
Efficient lysozyme refolding at a high final concentration and a low dilution factor
Of the various protein refolding methods, direct dilution is one of the simplest and easiest for scaling up the refolding process. However, it requires a large amount of refolding buffer, often utilizes a number of chemicals, and results in a low final protein concentration. In this report, we demonstrate that reduced dithiothreitol (DTTred), a carryover from denaturation, is a crucial and adverse factor in lysozyme refolding. Accordingly, we proposed a method of using high concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the refolding buffer to eliminate excess DTTred and aid in the refolding of lysozyme. The efficiency of this method is 84%, which resulted in a high final refolded protein concentration of 1.5 g/l and required only a low dilution factor (4x). Furthermore, compared with the traditional 50x direct dilution (resulting in a similar yield of 74%), the low dilution factor required much less GSSG and other constituents. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.