Thin Solid Films, Vol.600, 98-102, 2016
Morphology control for highly efficient organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cell based on Ti-alkoxide
The number of publications concerned with typical bulk-heterojunction solar cells that use fullerene derivatives and inorganic materials as electron acceptors has grown very rapidly. In this work, we focus on Ti-alkoxides as electron acceptors in the photoactive layers of fullerene-free bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that it is possible to control the morphology by adjusting the molecular structure and size of the Ti-alkoxides. The short-circuit current density (J(sc)) increased to 191 mu A/cm(2) from 25 mu A/cm(2) with a maximum, when the phase-separation structure was continuously formed to within about 20 nm below the exciton diffusion length by using either titanium(IV) ethoxide or isopropoxide as an electron acceptor. Within a thickness of 30 nm, the photoactive layer is not influenced by the electron transfer ability; thus, we demonstrate that the charge-separation efficiency is equivalent to that of a fullerene system. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.