Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.163, 161-171, 2015
Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions
Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (similar to 2100 m(2) g(-1)) and mixed (micro- and mesa-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (similar to 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 degrees C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240 -280 F g(-1), similar to 39 Wh kg(-1) and similar to 19 kW kg(-1), respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for similar to 10(4) charge discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Polymers;Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC);Scanning electron microscopy;Electrochemical properties;Electrochemical techniques