Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.163, 123-129, 2015
Carbon nanofibers synthesized by pyrolysis of chloroform and ethanol mixture
Platelet graphite nanofibers (PGNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (TSCNFs) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of 3 and 10 vol% chloroform in ethanol, respectively, in the presence of Ni catalyst at 700 degrees C. Auger electron spectrometry analysis reveals that the participation of chloroform in the synthesis led to Ni-Cl bonding on the surface of the catalysts, resulting in a relatively poor crystalline layer and a coarse surface. Furthermore, the Ni-Cl compound affected the melting point and mobility of Ni, changing the morphology and geometrical shape of Ni particles. A low amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the formation of smaller catalyst particles with a flat surface, resulting in graphene nanosheets stacked perpendicular to the fiber axis, which became PGNFs. In contrast, a high amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the aggregation of the catalyst and thus the formation of large catalyst particles with a rough surface, resulting in the random stacking of graphene nanosheets, which became TSCNFs. The participation of chlorine was found to be important in the synthesis of the PGNFs and TSCNFs. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.