Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.301, 137-144, 2016
Photocatalytic mineralization of codeine by UV-A/TiO2 Kinetics, intermediates, and pathways
This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of codeine by LW-irradiated TiO2. The degradation kinetics was determined under varied conditions including the TiO2 loading, codeine concentration, and pH. Codeine and several reaction intermediates including morphine were identified and tracked during degradation using HPLC/MS-MS technique, along with TOC and IC measurements. Specifically, removal of 100 mu g/L of spike codeine was complete in 3 min by contact with a 0.1 g/L suspension of TiO2 under UV irradiation at pH 7. The degradation kinetics of codeine was first-order with respect to both the catalyst TiO2 and the reactant codeine, with enhanced reaction rates with increasing pH up to pH 9. Mineralization of codeine was possible upon prolonged contact; near complete mineralization of 10 mg/L of codeine was achieved in 90 min with 0.1 g/L TiO2 under irradiation at pH 5, during which the organic nitrogen was converted to NH3-N (74%) and NO3-N (22%). Based on the identified intermediates, two degradation pathways were proposed of which one involved ipso-substitution followed by cleavage of the aromatic ring and another involved repeated hydroxylation of the codeine molecule followed by its fragmentation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.