Journal of Adhesion, Vol.92, No.6, 485-497, 2016
Reduction of Formaldehyde Emission from Particleboard by Phenolated Kraft Lignin
The aim of this study was the reduction of formaldehyde emission from particleboard by phenolated Kraft lignin. For this purpose, the lignin was extracted from black liquor and then modified by phenolation. During the urea formaldehyde (UF) resin synthesis different proportions of unmodified and phenolated Kraft lignins (10%, 15%, and 20%) were added at pH = 7 instead of the second urea. Physicochemical properties and structural changes of resins so prepared, as well as the internal bond (IB) strength and formaldehyde emission associated with the panels bonded with them were measured according to standard methods. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of lignin indicated that the content of O-H bonds increased in phenolated lignin while the aliphatic ethers C-O bonds decreased markedly in the modified lignin. Since both synthesis of UF resins and lignin phenolation are carried out under acid conditions, phenolation is an interesting way of modifying lignin for use in wood adhesive. The panels bonded with these resins showed significantly lower formaldehyde emission compared to commercial UF adhesives. The UF resin with 20% phenolated lignin exhibited less formaldehyde release without significant differences in internal bond strength and physicochemical properties compared to an unmodified UF resin. XRD analysis results indicated that addition of phenolated lignin decreased the crystallinity of the hardened UF resins.