International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.93, 1020-1033, 2016
Drag-reduction in buoyant and neutrally-buoyant turbulent flows over super-hydrophobic surfaces in transverse orientation
The present study involves Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of a turbulent channel flow subject to passive-control of super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS) employed in form of ridges/posts at the bottom-wall of the channel, oriented in transverse direction to the flow. The simulations have been carried out for a fixed friction Reynolds number Re-tau = 180 to investigate the effect of thermal forcing in tandem with SHS at a fixed friction Richardson number Ri(tau) = 15. It is observed that on decreasing the width to depth (w/d) ratio of the ridge topology, the drag-reduction increases and this reduction is found to be maximum for the topology of SHS posts. A key effect of this control is reduction in cross-flow fluctuations in the buffer-layer (i.e. 10 < z(+) <= 50) which lead to generation of weaker and more stable low-speed streaks which results in reduction in bursting of these near-wall streaks. This eventually causes considerable reduction in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) which leads to turbulent skin-friction drag reduction at the controlled wall generally of the order of 10-22%. Unstable-stratification of the SHS flow results in the wall-normal convection of turbulent-vorticity which enhances cross-flow fluctuations leading to an increase in Reynolds shear-stresses near to the bottom-wall. In total the effect of heating is found to mitigate the net-reduction produced in turbulent drag by 6-7% for different cases employing ridge/post topology. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.