Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol.37, No.5, 387-421, 2016
The Viscosity of Nanofluids: A Review of the Theoretical, Empirical, and Numerical Models
The enhanced thermal characteristics of nanofluids have made it one of the most raplidly growing research areas in the last decade. Numerous researches have shown the merits of nanofluids in heat transfer equipment. However, one of the problems is the increase in viscosity due to the suspension of nanoparticles. This viscosity increase is not desirable in the industry, especially when it involves flow, such as in heat exchanger or microchannel applications where lowering pressure drop and pumping power are of significance. In this regard, a critical review of the theoretical, empirical, and numerical models for effective viscosity of nanofluids is presented. Furthermore, different parameters affecting the viscosity of nanofluids such as nanoparticle volume fraction, size, shape, temperature, pH, and shearing rate are reviewed. Other properties such as nanofluid stability and magnetorheological characteristics of some nanofluids are also reviewed. The important parameters influencing viscosity of nanofluids are temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, size, shape, pH, and shearing rate. Regarding the composite of nanofluids, which can consist of different fluid bases and different nanoparticles, different accurate correlations for different nanofluids need to be developed. Finally, there is a lack of investigation into the stability of different nanofluids when the viscosity is the target point.