Chemical Physics Letters, Vol.646, 6-11, 2016
Electron density profile at the interfaces of bulk heterojunction solar cells and its implication on the S-kink characteristics
The efficiency of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell critically depends upon quality of its interfaces. The imperfect interfaces can lead to S-kink in the current-voltage characteristics that reduce the efficiency of BHJ solar cells. In this letter, using PCDTBT:PCBM based BHJ solar cells, we demonstrate that non-destructive X-ray reflectivity is powerful technique to estimate the electron density profile across the BHJ solar cells. A direct correlation is observed between the enhanced electron density at PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PCBM interface and appearance of S-kink inJ-V characteristics, which is also supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe measurements. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.