Bioresource Technology, Vol.193, 135-141, 2015
Application of nano TiO2 modified hollow fiber membranes in algal membrane bioreactors for high-density algae cultivation and wastewater polishing
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes with nano-TiO2 (5% of PVDF by mass, average size = 25 nm) additives were fabricated and applied for high-density algae (Chlorella vulgaris) cultivation. At the average light intensity of 121 mu mol/m(2)/s, the algal membrane bioreactors (A-MBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time of 0.5 d and an average solids retention time of 25 d had an average algae biomass concentration of 2350 +/- 74 mg/L (in COD units) and algal biomass production rate of 6.5 +/- 0.1 g/m(2)/d. The A-MBRs removed an average of 78% of phosphorus from the wastewater at the initial total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 3.5 to 8.6 mg/L. The nano TiO2-embedded membranes had improved surface hydrophilicity with its total resistance about 50% lower than that of the control. This study demonstrated that PVDF/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes had a better antifouling property for high-density algae cultivation and wastewater polishing. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.