Applied Energy, Vol.157, 111-122, 2015
The optimization of DC fast charging deployment in California
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are important for reducing fuel consumption and vehicle operating cost, and have the potential to reduce GHG and pollutant emissions. However, the range limits and long recharging times serve as obstacles to mass deployment. Well planned Level 3 DC fast charging stations are a potential solution to satisfy long distance travel demand instead of an expansive Level 2 non-home charging infrastructure. This paper identifies candidate charging routes and uses freeway exits and highway intersections as approximate candidate charging locations, and consequently solves a set covering problem to minimize the number of charging stations. Results show that 290 Level 3 charging locations are required for the State of California based on the 2000 California Travel Survey and BEVs with 60 mile range. With this optimized station network, electric light duty vehicle miles travelled (VMT) can reach 92% and BEVs can be used by 98% of drivers. If BEVs with 100 or 200 mile range are used, 126 or 31 Level 3 charging locations are required, respectively. This study also assesses the temporal utilization of charging stations. Congestion at several stations suggests extra chargers are required. A reservation system can benefit both the BEV drivers and station operators by reducing the wait times, decreasing the extra chargers needed, and more evenly utilizing all the stations. Related policies are also discussed to better deploy fast charging stations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.