Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol.39, No.1, 147-168, 2013
Combustion performance and emission reduction characteristics of automotive DME engine system
This article is a condensed overview of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel application for a compression ignition diesel engine. In this review article, the spray, atomization, combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics from a DME-fueled engine are described, as well as the fundamental fuel properties including the vapor pressure, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, and the bulk modulus. DME fuel exists as gas phase at atmospheric state and it must be pressurized to supply the liquid DME to fuel injection system. In addition, DME-fueled engine needs the modification of fuel supply and injection system because the low viscosity of DME caused the leakage. Different fuel properties such as low density, viscosity and higher vapor pressure compared to diesel fuel induced the shorter spray tip penetration, wider cone angle, and smaller droplet size than diesel fuel. The ignition of DME fuel in combustion chamber starts in advance compared to diesel or biodiesel fueled compression ignition engine due to higher cetane number than diesel and biodiesel fuels. In addition, DME combustion is soot-free since it has no carbon carbon bonds, and has lower HC and CO emissions than that of diesel combustion. The NO emission from DME-fueled combustion can be reduced by the application of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). This article also describes various technologies to reduce NO emission from DME-fueled engines, such as the multiple injection strategy and premixed combustion. Finally, the development trends of DME-fueled vehicle are described with various experimental results and discussion for fuel properties, spray atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME fuel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.