Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.280, 524-530, 2014
Assessment of the bioavailability and toxicity of lead polluted soils using a combination of chemical approaches and bioassays with the collembolan Folsomia candida
Understanding bioavailability and toxicity is essential for effective ecological assessment of contaminated soils. Total, water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations and soil properties in different shooting field soils were investigated. Three artificial soils containing different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as controls. Survival, reproduction and avoidance responses of Folsomia candida exposed to these soils as well as internal Pb concentrations were measured. In the shooting range soils, total Pb concentrations were 47-2398 mg/kg dw, pH(cacl2) 3.2-6.8 and organic matter content 3.8-7.0%. Pb concentrations in F. candida linearly increased with increasing Pb concentrations in the soils. Acid forest soils caused significantly higher collembolan mortality and avoidance responses and significantly lower reproduction than the neutral grassland soils, which could be attributed to differences in pH and especially CaCl2 extractable Pb concentrations. Soil properties significantly affected bioavailability and toxicity of Pb, but overall the collembolans seemed more sensitive to pH than to Pb in soils. This study shows the importance of selecting proper reference soils for assessing the effects of field soils. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.