Journal of Adhesion, Vol.91, No.3, 186-196, 2015
Influence of Ammonium Pentaborate (APB) on the Performance of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) Adhesives for Plywood
Ammonium pentaborate (APB) was used to modify urea formaldehyde (UF) resins, in which the formaldehyde to urea molar ratio was set at 1.80, 1.50, 1.25, and 1.05. Some specific properties, including gel time, free formaldehyde content in UF, bond strength, and formaldehyde emission levels from plywood were evaluated. The result showed that APB increased the gel time length, but also decreased free formaldehyde content and emission levels, which was reduced mostly by 79.0% and 81.4%, respectively. The result of bond strength indicated that APB was proper to modify high F/U molar ratio of UF resin regardless of the loading level, but a recommended loading level should be considered to relevantly lower the F/U molar ratio of UF. The suggested loading level of APB to UF is 8.0% to 6.0%, 6.0%, and 4.0% to UF resin with F/U molar ratio of 1.8, 1.5, and 1.25 separately.
Keywords:Ammonium pentaborate;Bond strength;Formaldehyde emission;Free formaldehyde content;Plywood;UF