Chemical Engineering Science, Vol.125, 32-57, 2015
Electrohydrodynamic atomization: A two-decade effort to produce and process micro-/nanoparticulate materials
Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA), also called electrospray technique, has been studied for more than one century. However, since 1990s it has begun to be used to produce and process micro-/nanostructured materials. Owing to the simplicity and flexibility in EHDA experimental setup, it has been successfully employed to generate particulate materials with controllable compositions, structures, sizes, morphologies, and shapes. EHDA has also been used to deposit micro- and nanoparticulate materials on surfaces in a well-controlled manner. All these attributes make EHDA a fascinating tool for preparing and assembling a wide range of micro- and nanostructured materials which have been exploited for use in pharmaceutics, food, and healthcare to name a few. Our goal is to review this field, which allows scientists and engineers to learn about the EHDA technique and how it might be used to create, process, and assemble micro-/nanoparticulate materials with unique and intriguing properties. We begin with a brief introduction to the mechanism and setup of EHDA technique. We then discuss issues critical to successful application of EHDA technique, including control of composition, size, shape, morphology, structure of particulate materials and their assembly. We also illustrate a few of the many potential applications of particulate materials, especially in the area of drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Next, we review the simulation and modeling of Taylor cone-jet formation for a single and co-axial nozzle. The mathematical modeling of particle transport and deposition is presented to provide a deeper understanding of the effective parameters in the preparation, collection and pattering processes. We conclude this article with a discussion on perspectives and future possibilities in this field. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.