Bioresource Technology, Vol.169, 750-762, 2014
Modification of agricultural waste/by-products for enhanced phosphate removal and recovery: Potential and obstacles
There is a growing trend to employ agricultural waste/by-products (AWBs) as the substrates for the development of phosphate biosorbents. Nevertheless, due to the lack of anion binding sites, natural AWBs are usually inefficient in phosphate decontamination. Consequently, modification plays a vital role in improving phosphate sorption's property of raw AWBs. This review paper evaluates all existing methods of modification. The literatures indicate that modification can significantly improve phosphate removal ability of AWBs by retaining phosphate ion onto modified AWBs principally via ion exchange (electrostatic interaction) and ligand exchange mechanisms. So far, little work has been done on the beneficial use of modified AWBs for the phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions. The poor recyclability of modified AWBs could be responsible for their limited application. Hence, further study is essential to search for novel, cost-effective, and green methods of modification. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.