Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.456, No.2, 591-597, 2015
Dual effects of duplex RNA harboring 5'-terminal triphosphate on gene silencing and RIG-I mediated innate immune response
Duplex RNA harboring the 5'-terminal triphosphate RNA is hypothesized to not only execute selective gene silencing via RNA interference, but also induce type I interferon (IFN) through activation of the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I). We evaluated gene silencing efficacy of the shRNA containing 5'-triphosphate (3p-shRNA) targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome in hepatic cells. Gene silencing efficacy of the 3p-shRNA was diminished due to the presence of the 5'-triphosphate moiety in shRNA, whereas the shRNA counterpart without 5'-triphosphate (HO-shRNA) showed a strong antiviral activity without significant induction of type I IFN in the cells. 3p-5hRNA was observed to be a better activator of the RIG-I signaling than the HO-shRNA with an elevated induction of type I IFN in cells that express RIG-I. Taken together, we suggest that competition for the duplex RNA bearing 5'-triphosphate between RIG-I and RNA interference factors may compromise efficacy of selective gene silencing. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.