Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.454, No.1, 119-124, 2014
Injectable cell scaffold restores impaired cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis in diabetic mice with hindlimb ischemia
The clinical success of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis has been limited in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia. We previously reported that an injectable cell scaffold (ICS), which is a nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated polymer microsphere, enhances therapeutic angiogenesis. Subsequently, we developed a modified ICS for clinical use, measuring 50 mu m in diameter using poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) as a biodegradable polymer, which achieved appropriately accelerated absorption in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this practical ICS in diabetic hindlimb ischemia. Bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) were intramuscularly injected, without or with a practical ICS, into the ischemic hindlimbs of mice (BMNCs or ICS + BMNCs group, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the beneficial effects of BMNC transplantation for limb salvage after ischemic surgery were almost entirely abrogated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, injection of ICS + BMNCs revealed significant limb salvage in diabetic mice to a similar extent as in non-diabetic mice. The number of apoptotic transplanted BMNCs was 1.8-fold higher in diabetic mice 10 days after transplantation compared to non-diabetic mice, while that in the ICS + BMNCs group was markedly lower (8.3% of that in the BMNCs group) even in diabetic mice. The proangiogenic factors VEGF and FGF2, also known as antiapoptotic factors, mostly co-localized with transplanted GFP-positive BMNCs that were closely aggregated around the ICS in ischemic tissue. In conclusion, the practical ICS significantly augmented cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis even in diabetic animals, through local accumulation of proangiogenic factors and antiapoptotic effects in transplanted cells. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.