Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.450, No.3, 1218-1224, 2014
Integrative omics analysis reveals differentially distributed proteins in dimorphic euspermatozoa of the squid, Loligo bleekeri
In the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri, each male produces one of two types of fertilization-competent spermatozoa (eusperm) that exhibit morphological and behavioral differences. Large "consort" males produce short-tailed spermatozoa that display free-swimming behavior when ejaculated into seawater. Small "sneaker" males, on the other hand, produce long-tailed spermatozoa that exhibit a self-swarming trait after ejaculation. To understand the molecular basis for adaptive traits employed by alternative male mating tactics, we performed the transcriptome deep sequencing (RNA-seq) and proteome analyses to search for differences in testicular mRNAs and sperm proteins, respectively. From mature male testes we identified a total of 236,455 contigs (FPKM >= 1) where 3789 and 2789 were preferentially (>= 10-fold) expressed in consort and sneaker testes, respectively. A proteomic analysis detected 4302 proteins in the mature sperm as post-translational products. A strongly biased (>= 10-fold) distribution occurred in 55 consort proteins and 61 sneaker proteins. There was no clear mRNA-protein correlation, making a ball-park estimate impossible for not only overall protein abundance but also the degree of biased sperm type expressed in the spermatozoa. A family encoding dynein heavy chain gene, however, was found to be biased towards sneakers, whereas many enzymes involving energy metabolism were heavily biased towards consort spermatozoa. The difference in flagellar length matched exactly the different amount of tubulins. From these results we hypothesize that discrete differential traits in dimorphic eusperm arose from a series of innovative alterations in the intracellular components of spermatozoa. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.