Applied Surface Science, Vol.320, 154-160, 2014
A combined ToF-SIMS and XPS study for the elucidation of the role of water in the performances of a Post-Plasma Process using LaMnO3+delta as catalyst in the total oxidation of trichloroethylene
LaMnO3+delta which is an environment-friendly and inexpensive material has been previously used as catalyst in Post-Plasma Catalysis (PPC) in the total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) which is a solvent widely used in dry cleaning and degreasing processes. It has been shown that the process efficiency increases in moist air (RH = 18%).The issue we want to address herein is the effect of water on the location of chlorine at the surface of the catalyst as chlorine is able to alter the catalyst structure, activity and stability. Therefore, a combined Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) study has been carried out on the fresh LaMnO3+delta catalyst (LM) and used catalysts after performing PPC with TCE diluted in dry synthetic air (LMO) or with industrial air containing water (LM18; 18 stands for the Relative Humidity) and CO2 (about 560 ppmv) at a temperature of 150 C. XPS and ToF-SIMS results both show the presence of chlorine on the tested catalysts whose amount increases by exposure of the catalyst to the reactive mixture in dry synthetic air. XPS results reveal that chlorine is present as both chloride ion and covalent chlorine on LMO while organic chlorinated residues are absent on LM18 catalyst. ToF-SIMS study indicates that lanthanum excess as oxide(hydroxide) partially covering the perovskite mainly transforms into LaOCl and to a minor extent into LaCl3. Extent of Mn chlorination seems to be favored over LMO having a higher MnClx +/-/MnOCl +/- ionic ratio compared to LM18. Furthermore ToF-SIMS clearly identifies Cl chlorinated organic ions, mainly CH2Cl- and CHCl2-, on LMO which may contribute to the XPS Cl organic component. From the combined ToF-SIMS and XPS results it is found that water delays the surface degradation extent of the perovskite into related (oxy)(hydroxy)chlorinated inorganic phases by less molecular chlorine and related chlorine species on the catalyst surface. A reaction scheme of Cl removal over LaMnO3+delta emphasing the role of water is given taking into account the detection of ToF-SIMS ions representative of the successive Mn intermediate states. As a consequence water allows tuning the degradation pathways of the main intermediate of the reaction, dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC), which decomposes to give phosgene, HCCl3 and CCl4 by a successive Cl incorporation over (oxy)(hydroxy)chorinated perovskite or/and Mn species while COx species are likely formed over the perovskite. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.