Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.98, No.15, 6633-6640, 2014
Identification of a novel carotenoid, 2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin, by Jejuia pallidilutea strain 11shimoA1 and its increased production under alkaline condition
Carotenoids are a class of naturally occurring pigment, carrying out important biological functions in photosynthesis and involved in environmental responses including nutrition in organisms. Saproxanthin and myxol, which have monocyclic carotenoids with a gamma-carotene skeleton, have been reported to show a stronger antioxidant activity than those with beta-carotene and zeaxanthin. In this research, a yellow-orange bacterium of strain 11shimoA1 (JCM19538) was isolated from a seaweed collected at Nabeta Bay (Shizuoka, Japan). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 11shimoA1 revealed more than 99.99 % similarity with those of Jejuia pallidilutea strains in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain 11shimoA1 synthesized two types of carotenoids. One of them was (3R, 3'R)-zeaxanthin with dicyclic structure and another was identified as (3R, 2'S)-2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin, a novel monocyclic carotenoid with pentenyl residue at C-2' position of saproxanthin, using FAB-MS, H-1 NMR, and CD analyses. Culturing strain 11shimoA1 in an alkaline medium at pH 9.2 resulted in a markedly increased in production of 2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin per dry cell weight, but a decreased in zeaxanthin production as compared to their respective production levels in medium with pH 7.0. These carotenoids are likely to play some roles in the adaptation of the bacterium to the environmental conditions.