Journal of Loss Prevention in The Process Industries, Vol.13, No.6, 449-457, 2000
Behavior of flames propagating through lycopodium dust clouds in a vertical duct
The structure of flame propagating through lycopodium dust clouds has been investigated experimentally. Upward propagating laminar flames in a vertical duct of 1800 mm height and 150x150 mm square cross-section are observed, and the leading flame front is also visualized using by a high-speed video camera. Although the dust concentration decreases slightly along the height of duct, the leading flame edge propagates upwards at a constant velocity. The maximum upward propagating velocity is 0.50 mis at a dust concentration of 170 g/m(3). Behind the upward propagating flame, some downward propagating flames are also observed. Despite the employment of nearly equal sized particles and its good dispersability and flowability, the reaction zone in lycopodium particles cloud shows the double flame structure in which isolated individual burning particles (0.5-1.0 mm in diameter) and the ball-shaped flames (2-4 mm in diameter; the combustion time of 4-6 ms) surrounding several particles are included. The ball-shaped flame appears as a faint flame in which several luminous spots are distributed, and then it turns into a luminous flame before disappearance. In order to distinguish these ball-shaped flames from others with some exceptions for merged flames, they are defined as independent flames in this study. The flame thickness in a lycopodium dust flame is observed to be 20 mm, about several orders of magnitude higher than that of a premixed gaseous flame. From the microscopic visualization, it was found that the flame front propagating through lycopodium particles is discontinuous and not smooth.